Tuesday, August 20, 2013




 Can be bought at Aquatic Eco-Systems.


Without question, this is the chemical of choice for insuring the safe and effective neutralization of chlorine and chloramines is sodium thiosulfate. With over thirty-years of research, published in reputable scientific journals, scrutinized, and experimentally duplicated by hundreds of researchers have proven this fact well beyond any doubt. This chemical can be used at a hundred times the required dosage without any ill effects to the pond inhabitants. Very few, if any, beneficial additives can make this claim. Sodium thiosulfate continues to be the only active ingredient in every effective de-chlorinating product available to the pond hobbyist and aquaculturist alike.

Each molecule of sodium thiosulfate neutralizes one molecule of highly toxic chlorine to produce one molecule of salt (sodium chloride) and two molecules of sulfate. The minuscule amount of salt and sulfate produced actually improves the electrolyte constituent of salt and freshwater systems.

Along with its highly beneficial effectiveness for chloride neutralization, sodium thiosulfate has other desirable qualities. It also neutralizes cyanide (reference to page 7 to find out more about cyanide), which naturally accumulates in the pond.
Several years ago it was discovered that the chlorine added to public water supplies was reacting with various water contaminants and producing harmful cancer causing compounds. The addition of chlorine is replaced now with the addition of chloramine. Chloramine is another biocidal compound composed of one chlorine molecule bound to one ammonia molecule. Today, in the United States, chloramine has replaced chlorine in many municipal water supply systems. When sodium thiosulfate is added to chloramine the chlorine bond is broken and the chlorine neutralized back into chloride leaving one molecule of ammonia in solution.

In an attempt to eliminate this new ammonia source, new claims and the addition of new chemicals to the de-chlorinators resumed. Trying to remove the infinitesimal amount of ammonia left behind after the neutralization of chloramine is unnecessary. A much greater amount of ammonia every day is expelled into our pond’s water immediately after we feed our fish. This burst of released ammonia generally goes undetected by most hobbyists. Within minutes, the ammonia is eliminated by the Nitrosomonas in our biological filters. With our fish never being the wiser to this accomplishment.

The use of chemical additives to eliminate ammonia is redundant. The only effective way to eliminate ammonia is with a healthy biological filter. There are some organic chemicals, which will bind with ammonia resulting in negative ammonia test kit readings. Unfortunately, the chemical produced (a primary amine: Any organic derivative of ammonia formed by the replacement of hydrogen with one or more alkyl groups) is just as toxic to our aquatic animals as the original ammonia was. The Nitrosomonas bacteria cannot oxidize this chemical. Within 24-hours the heterotrophic bacteria oxidizes the primary amine; but you will never guess what is produced – Ammonia! Now you are right back where you started from, except you have now lost over 24-hours by preventing the Nitrosomonas access to the ammonia. Just remember you cannot eliminate ammonia with chemicals - you need nitrifying bacteria or Biocenosis Baskets.


How To Make Up A Gallon Of Sodium Thiosulfate:
Make a solution consisting of 4 ounces (1/4 lbs) Sodium Thiosulfate crystals (photo or technical grade and can be bought from: AQUATIC Ecosystems, Inc. 1-877-347-4788) dissolved in 1 gallon of distilled or deionized water. Use 5 ml (1 teaspoon) of the solution for each 10 gallons of makeup water to neutralize up to 3.75-ppm chlorine. One cup can be used for each 500 gallons. (The entire one-gallon of solution will treat about 7500 gallons of tap water.) The shelf life of the solution is about six months to a year when stored in a cool location. The crystals will keep for several years if kept dry. 

Anoxic Filtration System ®
February 02-2005-2013
New Updated Version

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