Sunday, September 29, 2013

What’s coming up on my blog in October?

What’s coming up on my blog in October?

Stay tuned for Shelly’s pond build as she finishes her pond for the winter.

Maybe we will hear from Ardy and Yogas from Indonesia.

Brian’s Anoxic filter cleanout and what he thinks about it. I hope it’s good news!

I also found on a forum some old post from 2011 about the Anoxic filter. Lotusman tells a hobbyist: “ You have a right to your opinion, but not the right to give untrue facts.” So I will walk everyone through what was said and how hobbyists can actually start believing in other hobbyist when they are giving facts on forums, but are they really factual facts or misconstrued facts that have very little foundation to them.

 I have known Lotusman for many years now and he was shocked when he first saw my Anoxic filter in person and what it could do. In fact he even brought over a DVM, an expert in fish pathology to examine my water for herself.

So keep popping in for some juicy reading and some educational reading as well about bacteria and what some hobbyist think they know about the Anoxic filtration system and what they don’t know about bacteria. It will be an eye opener for you!

                      N. mucifera ( sacred lotus).  Photo from internet.

Saturday, September 28, 2013

Last call for filter cleaning before winter sets in.

It is now Saturday September 28th and it’s time for my yearly filter cleaning and water change in both pond and Anoxic filter. All small goldfish that live in the Anoxic filter will be placed in a five gallon bucket and culled before placing them back into their nice clean home for the cold winter months ahead. The Koi in the main pond will not be remove but will be given a water change, too.

This year like all other years no sick fish or did any of them die. Sometimes in the past I would have a Koi jump out and be found dead on the lawn, but not this year. I have lost more Koi to jumping out of the pond in the past 25-years than even old age. Sick fish are a thing of the past unless I introduce a Typhoid Mary to the pond. I think in the past 25-years I’ve lost about two Koi due to long very cold winters that just would not leave us alone here in Chicago land. 

Okay, the top two photos are of my Anoxic filter before its cleaning. As you can see not much in plant life is there! For those that think the Anoxic filter is nothing more than a veggie filter…well does this look like a thriving Veggie filter to you? With no direct sunlight the plants will never flower or get as big and full as they are suppose to. With two big overhanging Crabapple trees covering the pond and filtering out the available light; sunlight is now a rare commodity. The upside is I don’t have a Herein problems because they can’t see the pond from above. I must admit I do miss the good old days when the Anoxic filter was full of beautiful flowers galore from the water lilies.

 The next two top photos show the plants all cut down and an empty Anoxic filter. It really wasn’t that dirty at all even though I did not clean it this spring because of my goldfish spawning. So much for all toughs that think the Anoxic filter is nothing more than a big dirty cesspool of detritus and dead plants…it isn’t! In less than two hours all plants were cut down and the filter was cleaned and being refilled again with fresh water. Easy as pie as we say here in the States!

The last photo shows where I placed the sump-pump to empty the filter out. The filter has a low spot where the pump goes so all water drains to that low end for easy cleaning. I also just wanted to add that the Biocenosis baskets do not have to be removed from the filter during cleaning. They stay right were they are unless you need to transplant one of the aquatic plants. If you did what Brian woodcock has done and placed small PVC pipes underneath the baskets then cleaning is that much easier.

Brian Woodcock’s Anoxic Filter build from the UK Part-8.

 In the low spot where the sump-pump goes, that’s not dirt, that’s cat litter that has migrated out of the baskets or has been washed out of the baskets from cleaning. I just use a fishnet to scoop it out and discard it. Cleaning an Anoxic filter is not rocket science, just empty, cut down plants, hose down and pump out or drain old dirty water and fill back up, that’s all!  You don’t even have to get real fanatical about making everything spotless either; this filter has some very powerful Voodoo and is very forgiving.

Old Chinese proverb: One picture, worth a thousand words!

Friday, September 27, 2013

Shelly's pond build from beautiful Willamette Vally, Oregon U.S.A.

Hello again!

Temps in the 60's, but sheets of rain, followed by sheets of rain -- 3" is forecast for this weekend alone! Hope Oregon doesn't get washed down to Colorado! We both work full time, so the weather and diminishing daylight have slowed our pond progress. But the liner is down and in place; plumbing is completed, adding large boulders.

Just bought our very first 'aquatic plants' yesterday -- some evergreen 'hardy' selections to green things up a bit over winter.

I will start making my 22 Biocenosis baskets under the cover of the porch this weekend! You may recall that 22 baskets will be unplanted, but I will eventually add seven more planted Biocenosis baskets to a bog area. 

** I read that the baskets should be filled with kitty litter, and then a cup should be removed from the center and replaced with a cup of Laterite. Then I saw a photo of a completed Laterite basket: it looked like the Kitty Litter and Laterite were well mixed together in the center of the basket. So, I have a...


Is it best to keep the Laterite segregated from the Kitty Litter as much as possible -- or not? Is the answer based on whether the basket will be planted or not?

Believe it or not it can be done either way (It does not have to be segregated it can be mixed too.) and it will work with or without plants it doesn’t make any difference. Because sometimes Laterite looks like a Telkom Powder place one cup of Laterite in a Nylon stocking instead of just adding it loses to a basket. Now place that ball into the basket center with the cat litter surrounding it.

Enjoying and benefiting from your blog!  
With warm regards,


More Q & A's from the UK.

Hi Kevin,

  I heard about your anoxic filter, from Syd Mitchel Aka: Manky Sanke.

I live in the UK and have loads of questions for you, but to start, I have an existing 2000 gallon pond.

Q1: If I take it right, for this system to work well; you must have a very good pre mechanical filter. To stop the baskets from clogging up. This will also aid pond clarity.

Q2: My filter will be 84" long x 30" deep. X 28" wide. Can you give me an idea how to set this filter up?

Q3: What sizes pump will I need? The filter will be gravity fed from a 4" bottom drain.

Q4: I’ve seen some of these filters on internet; they all seem to be filled with plants. I know plants in a filter system, will lower nitrates. Can your anoxic filter lower nitrates, without the use of plants?

 That’s all for now, please email me back,


Thank you,

Name withheld from internet




Question one: Okay, you are half right and wrong at the same time. The Biocenosis Baskets will not clog because water is not being forced through the substrate and the bacteria don’t have to make polymers, not because the filter in which they sit in is dirty. The turbidity of the waters mass has nothing (which by the why is what a good prefilter will accomplished is clean Gin clear water)  to do with performance of the biochemical pathways of the Biocenosis baskets.

Good to excellent prefertilization will raise redox and aid in the lessening of the filters maintenance. There is nothing new in what I’m saying here far over the years there are many anecdotal and scientific accounts of such. It just makes for good pond husbandry to have the best possible water obtainable for our animals’, don’t you think? A good prefilter will give the hobbyist an √©lan attitude on their water chemistry without much outlay for its services.

Question two: You can have one layer or two but the aesthetics of the filter will totally be up to you. The size you mentioned sounds good and its geographical location will not have any influence on its performance, too. I show such a filter in my book where a 3” pipe underground goes to the pond and the filters 15-20’ away from the pond.

Question three: This is a good question but it is also a tricky question to answer because of too many variables that I don’t know of. However, I can say this: Get the best a biggest pump (output that is) your budget will allow. You can always slow down a pumps output [Ed: Which will also save on electricity by making the pump use less amps.] when needed but you can never make it pump more when expanding your pond or when you realize more is better. I have a garage full of old pumps that are too slow (GPM) or electrically challenge. Koi love fast moving waters and the Anoxic Filter reliance on water flow is not a limiting factor like other filtration systems are governed by. A 2000-gal pond will need to be turned over at least once an hour and the more the better if you can.


Question four: The Anoxic filter is not plant or geographically dependant. The misnomer is that aquatic plants love Nitrates, but Ammonia (NH3)/ammonium (NH4+) is really the preferred food or ion. Nitrates are chemical work for plants and must be reduced back into ammonia hindering photosynthesis. Therefore, plants only take Nitrates during peak photosynthesis and shutdown the uptake of that ion when peak photosynthesis stops at night. Ammonia is more readily available and will be taken 24/7. The Anoxic filter will reduce Nitrates and Phosphates through chemical and biological processes and turn Nitrates into Dinitrogen gas (N2) which is already 78% of earth atmosphere anyway. For the hobbyist, it’s a win, win situation!

I think the questions you asked merit for more people to see the answers than yourself. They are good question and are asked repetitively to myself so maybe you can help others with their pond modifications or builds especially in the UK.

Laterite is safe to use in an enclosed recalculating aquatic environment.

Laterite is safe to use in an enclosed recalculating aquatic environment.


Once again we’re back onto subject of Laterite being poisonous and turning ponds turbidity an Orange coloration. Now of course this is utter nonsense that Laterite is toxic to Koi (Cyprinus carpio) or any delicate species of fish for that matter. If it were then: Why is it that the Amazon has such an abundance of tropical fish, some being the most delicate on earth and Laterite laden waters are constantly flowing into their habitat? How can the indigenes people live is such an environment and drink the same poisonous water that the fish live in?

 Then we have Takashi Amano (and Dupla) a world famous photographer and very well known for his photographs of some of the most beautiful aquariums in the world. With such delicate tropical fish like: Pterophyllum altum, Symphysodon aeguifasciata aequifasciata, Petitella georgiae, or Hyphessobrycon erythrostigma. The aquariums’ he photographs uses Laterite as part of its substrate. This just would not add up if Laterite was so poisonous would it. The different tropical fish I have just named are far more delicate in nature than a hardy Koi is. Yet, Laterite does no harm to these animals, does it? In fact, they thrive in such waters. I guess nobody told them that the Laterite in their tanks is too toxic for them and they should all be dead.

 However, Mr. Amano decorates all his tanks based on “Nature’s own designs.” Some aquariums are over 5000 gallon in capacity. By now, it would be well known facts if the enclosed biotopes that Mr. Amano is so famous for were being poisoned by the Laterite that’s in their substrate, don’t you think? These rumors or nothing more than idle speculation at best, Laterite being poisonous to Koi and/or goldfish is unfounded bugaboo to scare off the hobbyist. With no scientific proof to back these accusations up; so then no one needs to worry about Laterite or cat litter being anything but safe for aquatic life.

I can see now where some hobbyists’ are saying that the Laterite discolors their pond water when Biocenosis baskets are disturbed and only when they are disturbed. However, with proper pre-fertilization a typical pond should clean up its own turbidly troubles in no time. Two weeks ago, a hobbyist called me and told me that the Laterite he bought was so fine it was like Telkom Powder. I told him to place one cup of Laterite in a Nylon stocking instead of just adding it loses to a basket. Now place that ball into the basket center with the cat litter surrounding it, problem eliminated if Biocenosis basket it tipped over. This Telkom Powder kind of Laterite is something new on the market. All the Laterite I’ve ever used looks like small chucks of Orange-Red clay, as shown in my CD-book.

I know that there are many vindictive hobbyists out there in hyperspace that would love to see hobbyist not use the Anoxic System, because it’s free and works. If there is a rumor, that Laterite is poisonous and someone’s trying to scare-off the hobbyist then let me know, I will definitely have it investigated by my chemist.  As far as I know the chemical composition of Laterite carries nothing harmful to Koi or Goldfish and is safe for aquatic life. As a professional aquatic microbiologist I can tell you this, it has many beneficial trace elements in it that will only benefit our Koi but not hurt them.

Takashi Amano is a photographer, designer and aquarist. His interest in aquaria led him to create the Japanese company Aqua Design Amano. Wikipedia
 Born: July 18, 1954 (age 59), Niigata, Niigata Prefecture, Japan

Note: If there are any scientific facts or proof that Laterite is poisonous that you or anyone else has read? If so, please tell all of us so we can all look it up. I’ve used it for over thirty years with no casualties from its use, ever.


Thursday, September 26, 2013

Letter from a UK hobbyist about the Nexus 310’s real cost and problems.

Letter from a UK hobbyist about the Nexus 310’s real cost and problems.

  Hi Jim,

   You made the statement that you use a Nexus filtration 310 system. That sounds pretty impressive that you use one already. Though not cheap by U.S. standards, it is a good filter nonetheless even with its limitations on water flow. So why would you want to get rid of such an expensive filter for an Anoxic Filtration System?  Don’t a lot of hobbyist in the UK use such a systems? It looks to me by the photos I’ve seen of UK ponds that it is very popular filtration system, it must be a lot cheaper in the UK than in the U.S.A. 

  I’m just perplexed is all; for some would criticize you for a move like you’re thinking. Here in the U.S. no one runs a Nexus all by itself without supplementing that kind of filter with another filter. 

 [Ed: In other words it’s never a standalone filtration system so the cost now is only part of what you will need to get a good working filter going.]

This was Jim’s reply to my E-mail to him…

Hi Kevin, 

 We will have to stop meeting like this people will start to talk. 

With regard to the Nexus 310, the reasons are, the limit on the rate of flow that the Nexus has, the fact that you must have lots and lots of air, and still have nitrate problems. It is only after you buy one that you then find out that it still needs a good pre-filter, which is also very large and very expensive. When you look at all the components that are required, water pump, air pump/s, UV, heater, pre-filter etc. the lights in town start to dim down when it is all running. All this before you get to a skimmer line!!! I am not made of money as they say over here but I would rather wait and buy the best when I have saved and planned, which I thought I had done. 

The cost of electricity over here in the UK is now astronomical, dare I say, must look at the carbon footprint. So research on pumps and efficient UV's with maintenance in mind is important, then the fields begins to narrow down, that is if you don't want to stand in your garden/ yard and rip up money. 

 Contrast all of that to your Anoxic system, don't need a great big hole to hide it in and the end result is pleasing to the eye, you can also say "I made that" giving due deference and credit to yourself.  I am not into showing or competitions but just want the best conditions I can provide for my fish which I have a feeling I will get with this method of water keeping. 

 I am starting again from scratch with the new pond so I may as well get it done right. The cost of a Nexus over here is in the region of $2700-$3000, with all the bells and whistles, however they hold the price very well so one could say I have already gotten over the hard part, and last but not least is the fact that it is one great big lump of a device and does not blend in well. Digging the hole is no problem but the extra cost to have the spoil removed, well it’s nothing short of scandalous, but we are a very small island and land is precious. 

Then you come to the cleaning regime, the inner chamber is no problem apart from the drain size which I now find too small to clear detritus efficiently (So was the sales pitch just a tad misleading when you find out you have to supplement the wonder filter you have just purchased) and the outer chamber has voids in the bottom which you can bet are full of God only knows what, plus the fact that the drain on that is even smaller. 

I now subscribe to the notion “If you can't see what's in it ... Don't touch it" Perhaps I am mad but I shall keep on striving till I get the result I envision. Thanks for the link to get to the book I am sure I shall be able to get it done on my good old Apple Gizmo. 

Once again many thanks and God Bless. I shall send some pics when I get my act together.

Regards ... Jim.

On 16 Feb 2011, at 13:59, Dr. Kevin Novak wrote:

  Hi Jim,

  Thanks so much for your detailed reply; I have never had anyone tell me what you have just told me. It seems the hobbyist here keep the truth bottled-up even when the damage is done -money whys that is! To be honest with you I’m a little horrified at what you have just said. The Nexus is not cheap by any means here in the U.S. 

 If you have any troubles or require help with the Anoxic Filter just give me an E-mail and I’ll help in anyway I can. Also try and read the blog of Franco’s on the Anoxic filter in Italy.



What you have just read is a correspondence between a hobbyist name Jim from the UK and me.

I intend to add pots in my existing filter system because I’m encountering string algae problem.

Hi Dr. Novak,

I intend to add pots in my existing filter system because I’m encountering string algae problems.

 The pond is 3600 gallon with 16 Koi; 8 of them are about 12”-20” while the rest are about 6”-10”. The BD circuit runs to a 55 gallon settlement chamber with microscreen to 55 gallon moving bed using K1 then to 3600gph pump to shower filter using Bio-balls to waterfalls back to the pond. The skimmer circuit goes to 55 gallon moving-bed using K1 to UV that Y to SG filter and foam fractionator.

I intend to put 4 smaller boxes (maybe 9”X9”X5”) of kitty litter clay and Laterite in the skimmer (made of white utility sink as per Greg Bickal’s DIY) and some more on top of the SG filter, right on top of the sand.

 My questions: Would this have a significant effect to the filtration system to control string algae even if the boxes are smaller and will just be about 10? How long does it take for these boxes to mature? Would I be able to see the impact this season or do I have to wait until next season? 

The pond water is pretty clean and clear. The only challenge I’m encountering is the string algae late in July.

 Thanking you in advance for your reply,



My online blog does explain about cyanobacteria and how hard it is to eradicate from the pond. Because string alga is nothing more than bacteria, it is capable of making its own foodstuff at their base and can take nitrogen from the air, too. Sometimes adding Hydrogen peroxide at 6%, of one U.S. gallon to 2500-gals of water will do the trick! 

To say the Biocenosis clarification baskets would end your plague of cyanobacteria problems forever is a misnomer. Anecdotal accounts say that it works and other say it doesn’t, but each situation is different and each pond will either have the earmarks of being successfully holding such at bay, or constantly loosing the battle to too much unidentified DOC that were never accounted for by filters, not being the Anoxic filtration system. 

 Sometimes filters and/or food will produce just enough phosphates to trigger an outbreak and the hobbyist unsuspectingly blames it on something that is not related to the cause. I guess what I’m saying: There are no guarantees no mater how much filtration is used to eradication cyanobacteria and I would only be second guessing on your pond husbandry or the condition or trustworthiness of the equipment that is presently in play. Of course these are not the words you wanted to hear and not the words I wish to say, but sometimes telling the truth hurts more than the deceiving lie.

I have always tried to keep the Anoxic filtration system free to the public and with help from good people like Syd Mitchel from the UK placing it on his website and Lio Fornellino in Italy the word has gotten out.

Hi Gert,

The Idea and biological activity is patented however the open cell baskets, cat litter and Laterite are not. What I’m saying, it’s like a ballpoint pen, and the inside workings are protected on how it works by patented laws but anyone can copy the outside and what it’s made of. All of those items have been patent by others.  
I will say right now that I think what Lio has done is great job and I wish him all the luck in the world. Lio has never claimed that the Anoxic Filtration system is his nor has he tried to change the name from what I have originally named it. He has always given credit to me the inventor.  

Everything he’s done is by the book and no infringements of patents apply to him or the sale of any of his products. I gave this to the public for free and if someone can make money on it … that’s great go for it as we say in the US. If I had the money I would do the same thing. 

I have always tried to keep the Anoxic filtration system free to the public and with help from good people like Syd Mitchel from the UK placing it on his website  and Lio Fornellino in Italy  the word has gotten out.  

What Lio tried to do before his passing, was sell cat litter and Laterite to the hobbyists to make up the Biocenosis baskets so people in Italy would have easy access to these products. I tried to do the same thing here in the U.S.  but no manufacturer of cat litter was interested in making up premeasured bags of cat litter and Laterite.  

 My idea was to have one bag of the premeasured stuff to fill one 11x11x7 open cell Biocenosis basket. That way it would be easier for the hobbyist to buy as many bags as needed without all the hassle of looking all over the place to find Laterite or baked non-clumping cat clay. Simplification!  That’s all I wanted to do! However, because I was not a big manufacturer of aquatic products it never became a reality. Yet I do see similar products like iron impregnated gravel on the internet for aquarium use but at five times the price. Let’s face it, if you could buy a 10 lbs. bag of premixed clay and Laterite for $3-4 USD then that would be a bargain.  It would only cost about $60 USD for twenty Biocenosis baskets that’s cheap enough! 

I know that someday someone in the pond business will eventually come up with a kit, but until then people will struggle or give up trying to get the right combination together to make up the Biocenosis baskets. They then will be missing out on what’s new for what’s old and cost more. Read your forums and see how many hobbyists are constantly talking about water quality problems and sick fish. Is this all the industry has to offer us is sick fish, drugs and water quality problems? 
 I cannot believe how many times Brian Woodcock from the UK has said:” I wish I would have known about this system sooner than spending all my money on expensive pond equipment.”  Because Brian’s ponds going so well now, he’s bored because he doesn’t have to fiddle with it every day. 

Click on the link below to read about Brian's Anoxic filtration build in the UK.

 If you’re the kind of hobbyists that likes to be hands-on with your pond equipment, then the Anoxic filtration is definitely not for you. I don’t have time to fiddle with my pond every day to be part of the hobby; I have better things to do! I don’t want the hobby to consume my life: I just want it to be part of it, that’s all. But then again, you can always go on the internet and read how everyone else is struggling with their ponds and keeping their Koi healthy and keep yourself busy that way or take up another hobby like Mumble peg or then there is…

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

I am planning to build a pond in my yard in the near future and I stumbled upon your anoxic filtration system.

My name is Alex Chai and I'm from Hong Kong. I am planning to build a pond in my yard in the near future and I stumbled upon your anoxic filtration system. Let me first tell you that I pretty much failed all my chemistry and biology classes in high school, so although it took me a few times to go through your explanation on the concept of the system, I truly believed that it is the best system I've seen.  

 Anyway, there are a few questions I'd like to ask before I actually build the pond and the system. Thanks in advance for your time and any help that you can give. 

 1) I don't keep Koi although my dad does. The pond I'm building is for my turtles and since they are south American turtles which originated from acidic water (pH around 5.0-5.8), knowing that your system works on ion exchange and with my limited knowledge on chemistry, I'd like to know if the system would work the same in acidic environment? Or is it relevant at all? 

 A: I’ve tested with pH down to 5.3-5.8 and found no hindrance of biological activity whatsoever even though this is very acidic. I don’t think it will make a difference in the long run. 

 2) Space is very limited here in Hong Kong overall. I understand you gave specific dimension on the baskets and the number of baskets to be used. And since I'd only be housing 3 turtles initially (they currently live in my indoor 5.5' tank) along with some feeder fish and shrimps, is it possible to use less baskets? Or use a lot of small baskets? Or instead, use fewer baskets but make each one bigger? 

A: Yes to all your questions on this one. Remember though more is never enough when it comes to filtration. If you go smaller and I’m not too sure how small you mean, then some plants will definitely help in all situation to make your turtles and fish feel more at home and give them some cover in direct sunlight. The larger the filter (more Biocenosis baskets) the better the issuance that if you have a mishap or unforeseen insult you’re covered especially with turtle fungus. All aquatic turtles are subject to shell fungus and a UV light will help keep bacteria count down.

 3) I tried to find the most "old school" cat litter but here in HK, almost every pet store I went to are selling "new age" cat litter that are either scented or made with some "green" materials like corn or paper. However, I've been using AquaClay( in my aquariums for some time and I can get them at wholesale price, if it's not too much trouble for you, would you be so kind and check out their web site and see if they can be used for substitute of cat litter?

 A: I looked it up and it sounds promising enough. I would still add the Laterite for the aid of bacterial growth acceleration. However, is it cost effective?  The pore-water and permeability sites may be too large for it to be considered “non-clogging” in the long run for pond applications. Cat litter will not allow for dirt and detritus to penetrate to any depth to stop or hinder biological activity from taking place, food for thought? 

 4) Other than keeping turtles, I also breed crystal red shrimps, South American dwarf cichlids (both need acidic water), and crayfish, if it's possible to scale down the system, would it be possible to use it in our sumps? My plan for the new breeding house that I recently got would be using a lot of 4' racks which I can put 6 2' tanks on each rack with a 4' sump at the bottom, do you think the anoxic filtration system would work on the 4'x2'x2' sumps?

 A: Yes you can use it in a sump; they have been doing that in the UK and in Italy now with some success. In other words they like it! Using Biocenosis baskets as a filter for aquariums is nothing new and most like it because they don’t have to worry about clogging of their filters. A sump underneath the tank hidden from sight is cheaper than buying an expensive canister filter, too. Just buy a hang on the back overflow with built in prefilter and that’s it, a hobbyist pump will do for returning the water to the tank.

Yes times are changing and we now have to change our ways of thinking to! Good for Cichlid tanks were these animals like to dig or are very touchy about water quality. 

 5) One last question. If you think it is possible to use the system in our sumps, since invertebrates are very sensitive to water quality, mainly copper. Do you think the Laterite in the baskets will be harmful to them? 

 A: Copper is not a significant trace-element in Laterite. Therefore invertebrates like Mollusk, Snails, and copepods and so on will not be affected by its copper content. I have already experimented with such and find it does no harm to them or their breeding habits. However, some hobbyists have reported the eradication of snails by using the Anoxic filtration system, but I myself have not found this anecdotal information to be true.

 Again Dr. Novak, thank you so much for your time and I'm excited to implement your system into my pond and tanks!

 Sent from my iPhone

This Red-eared slider is one of the most common water turtles you can buy here in the U.S.. It’s also susceptible to getting fungus and even a contorted shell if it does not have good water quality and proper food. Anoxic filters make excellent turtle filters because they are cheep and can be integrated with the pond very easily and give the animals the water quality they need. Photo from internet Archives.