Wednesday, August 28, 2013

Part 2: Some hobbyists will even go as far as making their whole pond into a huge biological filter by placing rocks, gravel, and small stones on the bottom of their ponds.

Part 2

Some hobbyists will even go as far as making their whole pond into a huge biological filter by placing rocks, gravel, and small stones on the bottom of their ponds. The same is true for what happens with this way of filtering, as with any other type. The stones will begin to clog with smut, dead Algae, and detritus. Ammonium producing anaerobic bacteria will begin to leach ammonia ions upwards out of the substrate into solution. Algae then will use this as a food source for this is a nutrient of prime importance or it has to be converted back into nitrates by the aerobic nitrification bacteria. Nevertheless, as you can see, that the pond will be plagued with the same problems as submergence filtration systems have with clogging and producing more ammonia/ammonium. 

Now let’s use this as an example or a good analogy of how the above method of biological filtration doesn’t work like it’s supposed to. Let us say you wanted to have a natural pond, and you wanted to cutout a section of X amount of gallons from biotope in a forest preserve. You then cut out this section in this biotope and placed a liner underneath it and then had it dropped into a hole in your backyard. You would think you would have the perfect scenario! Unfortunately, you would not, because once you put the liner underneath that extracted natural ecosystem you interfered with the intersection of topography, which ground water is going constantly into and out of the water body proper at the interface of the ground and water surface. The liner has cut off the movement of water through the soil or in this situation the rocks and gravel substrate. The soil substrate/roots/water interface is of tremendous importance and is now disrupted by the ponds liner. Natural ponds constantly have water moving in an out of them on a continuous basis. This is not just from the top to bottom movement but from horizontal and vertical directions as well.   

Unlike our ponds that are closed recirculating systems, natural ponds are open systems to topography and are not plagued with the same ammonia/ammonium ion producing problems. Therefore, with all that we now know, how can one solve this filtration dilemma?  

The quest to solve, this frustrating problem started me on a systematic investigation that took over sixteen years of research. Yes, I did R&D on this Anoxic Filtration system far over 16-years before it was made publicly known. The answer is not quite as simple as one would think and a great amount of scientific research was implemented in overcoming many common problems filtration systems are plague with. Is this the Holy Grail of pond filtration? Maybe not, but it is as close to it with what is known by science today. 

As the old saying goes: “If you build a better mouse trap people will buy it!” First, biophysical rules for the Anoxic filtration are different from that of filtration systems most hobbyists use in their ponds today. In the filtration systems hobbyist use, the overall efficiency of the filter is in relation to the filters-incoming foodstuff. Nutrients flux of incoming nitrogen reacts differently to levels of nitrates in the system that is if microbial mediators are in equilibrium with each other. If excess should occur, there may be a lack of balance of useful microbial mediators. This will occur when clogging of the filter medium is present or when oxygen concentrations are high in bulk water. 

 The Anoxic Filtration filter media having more anoxic and less anaerobic volume area where more efficient facultative anaerobic bacteria exist will be able to respond extemporaneously to the nutrients flux more efficiently than conventional filters do. The fact is that when glucose is randomly added to these facultative anaerobes they have an Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) yield of approximately 34 times that of anaerobic heterotrophs that are present in clogged filters or gravel bed filters. 

Adenosine Triphosphate s corresponds to the speed and efficiency nutrients can be reduced to make energy. Organic carbons do not limit these bacteria and mineral nutrients as heterotrophic bacteria are, which will have a negative impact on other chemolithotrophic processes. With the Anoxic Filtration System, biochemical pathways are always open and never clog. The oxic–anoxic interface microbial processing is the principal processing, controlling electrons flowing from organic matter to oxygen in molecular diffusion. This filter also has a diffusion of nutrients through it influenced by electrical charge. The filters Biocenosis-baskets are negative mV. Moreover, in the pond are many charged molecules, which most are positive mV. 

The more positive nutrients are naturally attracted to the filter Biocenosis-baskets that are then used by facultative anaerobes. These bacteria are thirty times more efficient than bacteria in oxygen free zones, make better use of phosphorus and only trace amounts of phosphates. Reducing nitrates back into gas elements, (Dinitrogen [N2] is called Dissimulative Denitrification.  

Making up Biocenosis-baskets for the Anoxic filtration and plants is really quite simple. The supplies you will need are large planting baskets (11" x 11" x 7" or 14" x 14" x 10"), kitty litter 10 (with no additives just plain baked processed clay), and Laterite that will be added to the substrate. Laterite is a highly weathered remnant of volcanic rock (weathering implies exposure to tropical temperatures, precipitation and forest derived humic acids over geologic time) but is not a fertilizer and is very rich in Iron and Manganese (iron is needed for plants to make chlorophyll). Taking an open cell plant basket and then fill it with Kitty litter make sure you leave a small impression in the center of the basket but this however is not mandatory it can be mixed up in the center of each Biocenosis basket, too. Take about one cup for smaller baskets and one and a half cups for larger baskets of Laterite and pouring it into the center of the basket then mixing the Kitty litter and the Laterite in the center of the basket. Now place only one layer of pond pebbles on top: This is to keep the Kitty litter from floating up after submerging it into the pond or being blown off during maintenance. Instead of using pond pebbles, you can substitute a black craft canvas/screen on top and wire-tie it to the basket. 

The Laterite will help the bacteria grow in its early stages; then once the bacteria become established it will be less dependent upon the iron in the Laterite for growth. Yet in the years to come it is still very important to maintain the Laterite concentration at all times so about every five to seven years you may have to add more to the Biocenosis baskets without plants and those with plants will be governed by the plants growth rate. The good thing about the Biocenosis basket is it will take years before clogging with organic matter (it may take 25 years or longer). You will use the same procedure for the planted Biocenosis baskets, but you will not use the black craft canvas on top of this basket only the pond pebbles with the addition of an aquatic plant of your choosing. 

(Part 3)

(Part 4)

    Expensive denitrifying media such as Bakki House Media has matured, it will have the same or similar facultative anaerobic bugs in it as in a biocenosis basket? 

Anoxic Filtration System ®
February 02-2005-2013
New Updated Version

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