Saturday, June 1, 2013

Excerpt from my book on electrical charge and the Anoxic Filter.

              Excerpt from my book on electrical charge:
It could be said that the diversity of clay materials type used and size of the substrate grains or their depth, the microbial population will be in equilibrium with its supply of foodstuffs. However, this is somewhat misleading, because in a closed system it is the overall efficiency of the baskets themselves, in relationship to the systems incoming foodstuffs that really counts. The Nitrogen pathways react differently to elevated or very low levels of nitrate in the entire mass of pond water. If the microbial mediators are in equilibrium, they respond respectably to either of those conditions. Yet, excesses will occur for an unambiguous reason! There may be a lack or balance of useful microbial mediators. Short-circuiting of the balancing act, example, excess oxygen inhibiting denitrification or the inverse relationship between that of oxygen and concentration in the overlying water and the overall rate of denitrification when the water is rich in nitrates is another possibility.
  How all this applies to the biocenosis clarification baskets would depend upon the volume and compensation of incoming nutrients and the health, condition, and type of substrate. In baskets having more anoxic than anaerobic volume area, where a greater volume of more efficient microbes exist would be able to respond very quickly to an excessive nutrient flux in the pond water mass. In addition, their existence and capability does not encompass guesswork that would accompany other  
The Anoxic Filtration System does have a remarkable difference from that of other filtration systems, because of the value of the electrical charge that accompanies matter in the depth of its substrate. This charge is measured in millivolts (mV). Even though the mechanism and pathways associated with Kitty litter mixed with Laterite are quite involved, it could generally be said that the baskets themselves are basically a chemical sink where the diffusion of nutrients through them are influenced by electrical charge. Moreover, those positive charges are attracted to negative charges. Accordingly, the water’s surface and the air above are a negative mV. In the bulk water of the pond there are many charged molecules. Much of it is positive mV. So are most of the living biomass, example the fish, gastropods, and plants. The substrate surfaces (all seven2 sides of the baskets) are largely a negative mV. The Kitty litter itself with the Laterite is negative with increasing magnitude with depth. The deeper the Kitty litter and Laterite, the more negative it becomes and the more positive charged nutrients are naturally attracted to lower depths. In each basket, small amounts of oxygen have been tested and shown to usually stay slightly above .5mg/l. The ability to retain some oxygen appears to keep the majority of the bed in an anoxic” condition. You must also remember that obligated anaerobic heterotrophs, will die if exposed to oxygen. Dissimilatory denitrification occurs in zones having a small amount of oxygen. One of the beneficial things about these particular bacteria is they are capable of living in areas containing little or no dissolved oxygen (in other words they are dimorphic in nature). They are enormously more efficient than the microbes living in the anaerobic zones!
               When an energy source like glucose is arbitrarily added, they have and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) yield of approximately 34 times that of obligated anaerobic heterotrophs. The difference in energy unit yield of ATP corresponds to how much faster and more efficiently, nutrients are reduced to energy. That’s a great value here if the majority of the baskets can be kept in an anoxic state excessive bulk water nitrate levels can potentially be controlled because microbes actively strive to stay in equilibrium with the available foodstuff. If the majority of the basket is anaerobic, ammonium is the denitrification end product, not nitrogen gas. Therefore, another nitrogen, compound of more significance is resulting! In natural systems, the anoxic layer is often quite substantial, ranging from several inches to a foot or more. Yes, it would be fair to say from the studies conducted that when and anoxic system is created. The depth of its anoxic zone is extended and insured. The potential is now greater for increasing in astronomical terms the number facultative anaerobic heterotrophs.
Many hobbyists say that: “It is impossible to have oxygen in the baskets because the substrate will compact, and therefore will inhibit any biological process to take place.” However, they forget about the substrate permeability1 qualities, and the large part it plays in the microbial and chemical processes. The permeability of Kitty litter and Laterite allow oxygenated pond water with inorganic compounds to pass through the substrate on a current-carrying magnetic field, which then allows the substrate to stay more aerobic. Such substrate has two characteristics that enable fluids to move through it: (1) porosity and (2) permeability. Porosity is the presence of small openings, or pores. Permeability means that some of the pores are connected by spaces through which fluids can move. Nonetheless, actual tests of the baskets have confirmed the existence of oxygen at low levels for bacterium to exists and exists it does. Yet, in all honesty, how it gets there is still somewhat of an unknown to scientist. Yet, I will try to explain the best I can for the hobbyist.
            Oxygen penetration is less and less with depth. It decreases for two reasons: microbial metabolism and subsequent biogeochemical processes. Diffusion is a very effective process over short distances; however, it has its limitations.

     Yet, the presence of oxygen in the biocenosis clarification baskets suggests that oxygen does diffuse as far as the center of each basket. Concomitantly, biogeochemical processes may produce or retain some oxygen.

Differential pressure existing across gradients. Ion displacement (differential pressure) exists when there is a relationship with carbon dioxide removal. If there is a substrate producing some carbon dioxide, it then becomes a factor in creating anoxic condition. The addition of anion producer such as microbial or aggregate or both needs to produce enough oxygen to engage or attract the carbon dioxide and that will then move the cations, releasing the oxygen and consequently going more aerobic. The point being made here is that it is that oxygen is present in the substrate of each basket and it is clearly not there only because of diffusion alone.
      Carbon availability for autotrophs, such as cyanobacterium, or those bacteria that utilize light and carbon dioxide to carry out their biological processes and can quickly use an abundance of inorganic carbon. Heterotrophs are mostly responsible for breaking down organic matter and thrive in areas where diffusion abounds and where organic carbon is well cycled. It is also a fact that mediating biochemical transformations (protein and/or enzymes) and genetic controls (DNA/ RNA) show a common reliance on specific ratios of carbon (DOC), nitrogen (DON), and phosphorus (DOP). It could then be said organic carbon is a major player in how well inorganic nutrients, example, nitrogen and phosphorus, are used. In addition, there appears to be a specific ratio needed, which is thought to be approximately 36-parts Carbon, 6-parts nitrogen, and 1-part phosphorus, sometimes referred to as the Redfield Ratio.

    Evidence suggests that when heterotrophic bacteria are limited by both organic carbon and mineral nutrients, they have a negative affect their trophic neighbors in the microbial food network. In other words, if they suffer, it appears to negatively affect neighboring processes. Nevertheless, nitrogen is generally the primary limiting nutrient in our ponds because it controls the rate of primary production. If the system is supplied with high levels of “nitrogen,” then algal blooms will generally occur.
Whether organic carbon is cycled or stored, it appears to be a matter that relates to how the baskets substrate supplies heterotrophic and autotrophs their essential foodstuffs. However, it has been shown that when only an organic carbon source is added, autotrophs are out competed by heterotrophs for inorganic nutrients, demonstrating a need for the corresponding nitrogen. If inorganic nutrients are only added, autotrophs will increase, such as cyanobacteria. Therefore, the ratio between carbon and nitrogen and that of phosphorus are very important factors when facilitating population densities of either bacterium. One thing is evident, that the basket substrate along with where diffusion is the most critical player, are very efficient at cycling organic carbon to balance the ratio of available constituents.

       Another thing that pond hobbyists worry about: is that of phosphates. Actually, most phosphates in our ponds are due to food fed and the quality of tap water used for evaporation makeup or water changes. However, it has been said anaerobic areas, were obligate anaerobic heterotrophs live, accumulate phosphates. As a matter fact, the anaerobic area with its lower pH and redox is an efficient user of the oxygen electrons tied to the phosphorus element; therefore, phosphate is quickly reduced to other phosphorus molecules and ions.

    Therefore, phosphate accumulation anywhere where it is not attacked for its oxygen, suggesting that in more aerobic and anoxic bed areas there would be greater accumulation since oxygen is readily available. However, that is also not accurate! In those areas, it is mostly bound to calcium and manganese (a trace element in Laterite) where it is quite stable because it is very easy to maintain its “charge” balance. Therefore, phosphates are usually not available for uptake in substrates unless associated with reducing conditions.

     I believe that a nearly complete recycling can be achieved in a pond equipped with biocenosis clarification baskets. The fact remains that grain size and depth of such, play a major role in the class of bacteria that inhabit the biochemical pathways of the substrate of each basket. Nevertheless, when the right percentages of each are present, the substrate world has a very positive effect on the overall pond water mass and will therefore make it suitable for aquatic animals!

        Permeability – per·me·a·bil·i·ty

1. The property or state of being permeable.

2. Also called Magnetic permeability. Electricity: A measure of the change in magnetic induction produced when a magnet material replaces air, expressed as a coefficient or a set of coefficients that multiply the components of magnetic intensity to give the components of magnetic induction.
     3. Geology: The capability of a porous rock or sediment to permit the flow of fluids through its pore spaces.
       4. Aeronautics: The rate at which gas is lost through the envelope of an aerostat, usually expressed as the number of liters thus diffused in one day through a square meter.
       5. Nautical: The capacity of a space in a vessel to absorb water measured with reference to its temporary or permanent contents and expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the space.
      6. The property or condition of being permeable.
      7. The rate of flow of a liquid or gas through a porous material.
      8. The property of something that can be pervaded by a liquid (as by osmosis or diffusion) (ant: impermeability)

1. The ability of a substance to allow another substance to pass through it, especially the ability of a porous rock, sediment, or soil to transmit fluid through pores and cracks. Geologic permeability is usually measured in millidarcies.
       2. Magnetic permeability.
If you were wondering how does one obtain seven sides on a six sided basket?
    1. Topside
       2. Front side
       3. Bottom side
       4. Right side
 5. Left side
     6. Posterior side/Back side
     7. Inside/interior
    Even a circle, no matter how thick it is, has four sides to it, unless it has no existents at all. 


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